July 15, 2024

How Do Anesthesia Machines Work?

In the modern operating room, a critical piece of equipment that ensures patient safety is the anesthesia machine. These complex ...
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June 17, 2024

Spinal Cord Stimulators Across the US

Spinal cord stimulators have emerged as an innovative treatment option for chronic pain management. These devices, which deliver electrical impulses ...
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May 20, 2024

Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity

Local anesthetics play a crucial role in modern medicine, providing pain relief during various medical procedures. However, like any medication, ...
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April 22, 2024

What is an Epidurogram?

Epidural injections—injections of medication into the epidural space of the spine—are used in several contexts in medicine. For example, epidural ...
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March 25, 2024

Optimal Timing Between Pregnancies

Pregnancy places significant strain on a person’s body and health. Ideally, patients should space their pregnancies out appropriately to mitigate ...
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blood oxygen
February 25, 2024

How Is Blood Oxygen Measured?

Oximetry is a technique that uses differences in light absorption to measure blood oxygen saturation. Accurate measurements of oxygenation are ...
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January 25, 2024

Conditions that Complicate Intubation

Intubation is a critical procedure to maintain a patient’s airway and allow breathing that can be complicated by various conditions. ...
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December 28, 2023

Anesthesia and Surgery-Related Drug Diversion

Anesthesiologists are managing addictive substances daily in the operating room (5). Exposure to these substances, whether as patient or clinician, ...
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November 13, 2023

Managing High Blood Sugar During Surgery

In patients undergoing surgery, the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) or high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is associated with increased morbidity ...
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October 12, 2023

Postoperative Pain in Patients with Chronic Pain 

The National Center for Health Statistics estimates that 25% of the United States population suffers from chronic pain, incurring an ...
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September 7, 2023

Bleeding During Upper vs. Lower GI Surgery 

Despite therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding still carries relatively high morbidity and mortality.3 Post-surgery GI bleeds (e.g. ...
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July 20, 2023

Accommodations for Long COVID 

An estimated 65 million individuals worldwide have Long COVID, which includes a constellation of conditions that occur or persist after ...
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June 13, 2023

Language Barriers with Surgical Patients 

In 2020, about 25 million Americans did not speak English [1], posing difficulties for a healthcare system in a country ...
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May 8, 2023

Are Covid Therapeutics Still Being Developed? 

As of the beginning of 2023, there were three FDA-authorized treatments for general use against COVID-19, as well as 14 ...
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March 23, 2023

Algorithms for Tumor Detection 

Detecting tumors in their early stages is critical to treating them as effectively as possible. However, the detection of tumors by ...
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February 23, 2023

A Comparison of Midazolam with Other Benzodiazepines 

Benzodiazepines are depressants that have various effects, including hypnosis, anti-convulsant activity, sedation, decreased anxiety, mediated muscle relaxation, and anterograde amnesia ...
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January 5, 2023

Sedation for Cardiac Arrest Patients 

Cardiac arrest is a major public health challenge worldwide 1. Despite significant advances in resuscitation methods, cardiac arrest is still ...
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November 2, 2022

Rollout of Bivalent COVID Booster

To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists developed more than 150 vaccine candidates at unprecedented speeds in 2020 (1). In the ...
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September 26, 2022

Monkeypox Vaccination

Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA zoonotic orthopoxvirus with symptoms similar to smallpox, albeit less severe and with notably ...
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August 19, 2022

Anesthesia Considerations for IVF 

In-vitro fertilization is an exciting technology that has allowed many couples struggling with infertility to conceive children3. These procedures consist ...
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Effective analgesia and anesthesia during and after surgery are critical to pain control.
July 18, 2022

Separating Anesthesia and Analgesia 

Analgesia is the relief of pain, while anesthesia is the temporary loss of sensation and/or awareness. Analgesia does not involve ...
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egional nerve block has been considered as an alternative to general anesthesia.
June 20, 2022

Regional Nerve Block for Hip Surgery 

Hip fracture is a common condition that is correlated with old age and tends to arise due to osteoporosis combined ...
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May 16, 2022

Health Risks of Marijuana 

Marijuana use is becoming increasingly common, for both medical and recreational purposes. As of April 2022, 37 US states had ...
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April 18, 2022

Chloroprocaine: Mechanism and Uses 

Chloroprocaine (CP) is a local anesthetic classified as an amino ester because of its ester bond between the lipophilic component ...
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March 23, 2022

Anesthesia for Lumbar Spine Surgery

Nearly 80% of Americans suffer from low back pain at some point in life, one quarter of whom experience chronic ...
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February 22, 2022

3D Printing in Surgical Fields

First patented by American engineer Charles Hull in 1984, three-dimensional (3D) printing is based on an additive technology by which ...
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January 19, 2022

Spinal vs. Epidural Anesthesia

Spinal and epidural anesthesia are both forms of local anesthesia injected near the spinal cord.1 Both block pain from an ...
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December 20, 2021

Anesthesia on the Brain: Waking the Brain Post-Surgery

Traditionally, the scientific model of anesthetic action on neural activity has proposed a “wet blanket” effect, which assumes the effects ...
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November 15, 2021

Seeking Emergency Care during COVID-19

Fears of contracting COVID-19 in health care settings have resulted in many individuals avoiding emergency care despite potentially life-threatening illnesses. ...
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October 18, 2021

Percutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for Postoperative Pain

Postoperative pain has been associated with a number of adverse outcomes, including emotional/psychological trauma, opioid addiction, and chronic pain. Moreover, ...
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September 20, 2021

Amazon Web Services (AWS) for Health

Since its founding in 1994, Amazon has grown from an online bookseller to a multinational tech company that supports digital ...
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August 16, 2021

Blood Clot Risk After Surgery

Blood vessels often undergo trauma during surgery, promoting the formation of coagulated platelets and fibrin colloquially known as a blood ...
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July 19, 2021

Endoscopy Preparation and Anesthesia Considerations

Administering anesthesia outside of the operating room is becoming more of a common practice, particularly in gastroenterology endoscopy suites2. In ...
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June 21, 2021

Antimicrobial Surgical Prophylaxis

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infections in surgical patients [1]. Such infections are among ...
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May 17, 2021

Arterial Cannula Placement in Children

Placement of an arterial cannula perioperatively in children is commonly performed for continuous hemodynamic monitoring and/or frequent blood sampling. The ...
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April 19, 2021

EEG for Consciousness Assessment

Probing consciousness remains a daily challenge for anesthesia providers. The electroencephalogram (EEG), invented in 1924 by German neurologist Hans Berger, ...
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March 22, 2021

CRISPR-based COVID-19 Testing: Mechanism and Potential

The first recorded outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (also known as COVID-19) was recorded in Wuhan, China in January of 2020.[1] Since this ...
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February 22, 2021

Ethics of Integrating Artificial Intelligence in Medicine

While the term “AI” or “artificial intelligence” has seamlessly woven itself into modern parlance, its precise definition remains vague. AI ...
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January 25, 2021

Anesthesia Management in Marijuana Users

In 2016, 13% of people in the United States reported being regular cannabis smokers, compared to only 7% in 2013 ...
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December 29, 2020

COVID-19 Vaccine Update

Roughly nine months after the COVID-19 pandemic began its sweep across the U.S., killing about one in a thousand people ...
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November 30, 2020

The Physiology Behind Therapeutic Plasma Exchange

Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is the procedure in which a patient’s blood plasma is removed, purified, and returned.1 In most uses of TPE, blood is circulated through a centrifuge, which separates blood ...
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Sustainability is increasingly important for healthcare practices, including anesthesia
November 4, 2020

Environmental Sustainability in Anesthesia

While anesthesia practices have long prioritized safety and cost-efficiency in day-to-day operations, environmental sustainability has typically not been given the ...
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Image of vital sign monitor
September 29, 2020

The Use of Subcutaneous Nitroglycerin in Radial Artery Cannulation

Radial artery cannulation, commonly performed by anesthesia providers for hemodynamic monitoring or frequent lab analysis, is often complicated by vasospasm, especially when multiple attempts are ...
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Image of healthcare worker in personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic
August 31, 2020

Potential Long-Term Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthcare Systems

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread worldwide.1 The virus, commonly presenting as ...
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August 3, 2020

The Correlation between Postoperative Use of Opioids for Acute Pain ...

In 2015, for the first time in a hundred years, the average life expectancy in the United States entered a ...
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June 30, 2020

Orthopaedic Operating Room Protocols and Recommendations during the COVID-19 Pandemic

As of June 2020, there are close to 10 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with the 25% of the ...
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May 6, 2020

Managing Intraoperative Bronchospasm

Bronchospasm, or the severe constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, is a potentially dangerous complication that every anesthesia provider should be ...
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April 17, 2020

Patient Awareness Under Anesthesia

In a small percentage of anesthesia cases, patients report awareness during the procedure. Awareness is defined as recall of intraoperative events after the operation ...
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March 27, 2020

E-Cigarette or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI): Perioperative Management

Electronic cigarettes, called “e-cigarettes,” “e-cigs,” “vapes,” “e-hookahs,” “vape pens” and “electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS),”1 are drug-containing devices that may resemble regular cigarettes, cigars, ...
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March 2, 2020

Pentazocine: Biological Mechanisms, Clinical Applications and Side Effects

Pentazocine is an opioid analgesic drug available in some European countries and in drug combination products in the United States.1 ...
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February 25, 2020

Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is the primary support for patients with respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MV is ...
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February 21, 2020

Hydromorphone: Biology, Clinical Uses and Side Effects

Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic opioid drug with analgesic effects, and a more potent derivative of morphine.1 Hydromorphone is classified by ...
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February 5, 2020

Drug Shortages: Implications for Anesthesiology

Drug shortages can occur for various reasons, including manufacturing and quality problems, delays and discontinuations.1 Problems in the medical supply ...
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January 15, 2020

Topical Medication for Neuropathic Pain

In 1994, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) established a clear taxonomy of nociceptive and neuropathic pain ...
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January 3, 2020

Heart Rate Variability (HRV): Health, Stress and Anesthetic Implications

Heart rate variability (HRV) represents the changes in intervals between consecutive heartbeats, as well as the changes in intervals between ...
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December 31, 2019

Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Undergoing General Anesthesia

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a persistent minor impairment of cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and language comprehension following ...
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December 27, 2019

Anesthetic Implications of Psychoactive Drugs

In 2018, one in five adults in the United States experienced mental illness.1 Mental illnesses are marked by changes in ...
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December 19, 2019

Improving Access to Healthcare in Rural Communities

The World Health Organization identifies anesthesia and surgical services as part of a universal right to health [1]. While an ...
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December 12, 2019

Accuracy of Electronic Health Records

Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are digital patient health records, which are meant to be easily accessed and shared with authorized ...
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November 15, 2019

Anesthesia Techs: Compensation and Job Satisfaction

Anesthesia techs, a group comprised of anesthesia technicians, certified anesthesia technicians and certified anesthesia technologists, play integral roles in the ...
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September 10, 2019

Virtual Reality in Medicine

As recently as September 2019, reporters, scientists and health professionals have been discussing the role of virtual reality in medicine.1 ...
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August 22, 2019

eCQMs: Electronic Clinical Quality Measures

An electronic clinical quality measure (eCQM) is defined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and the Office ...
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